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ConclusionThe first verse, then, contains a very general announcement; in respect of time, without date,--in respect of space, without limits. Candlish, D. The belief in causation is one of the primary convictions of the human mind. It will be unnecessary for the purposes of this argument to discuss its origin. It is also certain that this conviction is not the result of any conscious process of reasoning.

We acquiesce in it because we cannot help doing so. Anyone may satisfy himself that this is the case, by trying whether it is possible for him to believe that any particular phenomenon has come into existence without a cause. One of these primary beliefs is that every phenomenon must owe its existence to a cause adequate to produce it. This proposition therefore constitutes one of the highest rectitudes which is attainable by man, and lies at the foundation of all reasoned truth. Unless we are under the bias of some particular theory, we invariably associate the idea of efficiency with that of cause.

We may frequently mistake non-causes for causes, but efficiency, i. This being so, the following important consequences follow. Whatever exists in the effect, must exist either actively or potentially in the cause. Various things, which philosophers and men of science have designated causes, are not causes, but necessary conditions of the existence of a particular thing.

Thus space is the necessary condition of the existence of extended bodies, but is certainly not the cause of their existence. In a similar manner, in the language of the Darwinian theory, the environment of a thing is frequently spoken of as its cause. It may be the necessary condition of the existence of a thing in that particular form, but to designate it its cause is an inaccuracy of thought.

The truth is, necessary conditions limit the action of causes, and may direct their activity into this or that channel; but to treat them as causes is absurd, for they neither do, nor can produce anything. Law is not a cause. Thus even scientific men are constantly in the habit of affirming that the laws of nature effect this or that; and that feeble man is unable to resist their overwhelming power.

The truth is, that while the forces of nature effect much, the laws of nature can effect nothing. What are the laws of nature? They are merely expressions of the definite order of the occurrence of phenomena. I must now recur to one more point above referred to, as fraught with consequences of extreme importance.

I have observed that the very conception of an efficient cause and an efficient cause is the only one which satisfies the idea of real causation , involves the consequence that it must contain within itself, either actively or potentially, all the effects of which it is the cause; otherwise, such portions of the effects which are not inherent in the cause must be self-produced, which is a self-contradiction, or be produced by the energy of an independent Creator, a conclusion which the theist will readily accept.

This being so, all the effects, or in other words, the phenomena, which exist in the universe, must exist either actively or potentially in its first cause, i. Now, one of the phenomena of the universe is intelligence. Intelligence therefore must exist in God. Another of its phenomena is the moral nature of man, and the principles of morality founded on the moral law. God therefore must be a moral Being. Another of its phenomena is free agency as it exists in man.

The first cause of man i. Another of its phenomena is will, for it exists in man. Volition therefore must exist in God. Another of its phenomena is personality, for it exists in man. Personality therefore must exist in God. Another of its phenomena is that its forces act in accordance with invariable law, from which action the order of the universe springs.

Invariable law therefore must be an expression of the Divine will, and the love of order must exist in God. This argument may be pursued to a much greater length; but this will be sufficient to indicate its character. This argument proves that its first cause i. It is one of the instinctive beliefs of our minds, when our rational powers have attained their full development, that whenever we contemplate an orderly arrangement of a complicated character, we instinctively draw the inference that it denotes the presence of intelligence.

We feel that this is an inference which we cannot help drawing, for order and intelligence are in our minds mutually correlated. Observe, I make this affirmation under the qualification that we cannot help drawing this inference when our rational powers have attained to their full development.

I do so because I maintain that the ideal of human nature and the testimony which its constitution affords to the realities of things, are to be found in the perfect and not in the imperfect man. The opponents of theism dispute the correlation of order and intelligence on two grounds. First, they affirm that the conception is an anthropomorphic one, inapplicable to the works of nature.

Secondly, that the production of all the phenomena of the universe by the unintelligent forces of nature, acting in conformity with laws from which they are incapable of varying, is an adequate account of these orderly arrangements. With respect to the tact of these objections to the validity of our argument, I answer--First, that our belief in this correlation between order and intelligence is not a relative, but an absolute belief, embracing all things, all places, and all times.

Secondly, that even if the objection were valid, it makes no attempt to propound an alternative theory of the origin of these orderly arrangements. Thirdly, the affirmation that the alternative theory, viz. First, it contradicts our reason. What, I ask, is the conclusion which we draw, when we contemplate an orderly arrangement of a complicated character? I answer that we cannot help inferring that it has originated in intelligence.

If the suggestion is made, that it is due to what is commonly called chance, we reject it with scorn. Scientific unbelief, I know, affirms that there is no such thing as chance. Let me adduce one or two simple illustrations. Suppose a traveller had met in some foreign country a construction it is my misfortune, and not my fault, that I can only express myself in language which has the appearance of assuming the point at issue , which on examination he found to bear a striking resemblance to the machinery in the arsenal at Woolwich, and that no one could tell him how it had originated.

Further, that he succeeded in setting it in motion; and that after carefully observing it, he discovered that all its movements took place in a constantly recurring definite order. Let us also further suppose, that on making inquiry how it got there, he was told that during some distant period of the past, a number of the unintelligent forces of nature, after a prolonged struggle, had succeeded in evolving this singular result. Would he, I ask, consider this an adequate account of its origin, or view it as an attempt to impose on his credulity?

Or let us take a case nearer home, the library of the British Museum for example, or its collections of minerals or fossils. On walking round them he could observe that their contents were arranged in a certain definite order, yet he is entirely ignorant how they got arranged in this order. Of this he would feel as certain as of his own existence.

These instances will be equally suitable as illustrations of the argument from adaptation. But it will be needless to multiply examples. I therefore ask if in these, and in an indefinite number of similar cases, we esteem this conclusion to be one of the most unquestionable of certitudes, why should the inference become inconclusive, when we observe similar arrangements in the phenomena of nature, the only difference being that the latter are on a vaster scale, and in an endless variety of complication?

It follows, therefore, that the alternative suggested by unbelief contradicts the convictions of the reason of an overwhelming majority of civilized men. Secondly, the alternative theory derives no support from experience. No one has ever witnessed an orderly arrangement issue from the meeting together of a number of the unintelligent forces of nature. If on throwing up twelve dice an equal number of times, they invariably fall in the same order, the conclusion is inevitable--they are loaded.

In a similar manner the conclusion is equally inevitable, when we contemplate the orderly arrangements of the universe. They are loaded with a Divine intelligence. The argument from adaptation may be best exhibited under two heads. First, those adaptations which denote plan, or the realization of an idea through a gradual course of evolution; and, secondly, those adaptations by which a particular result is produced, and which alone render its production possible.

To take an example of each. The human hand, if contemplated as a piece of mechanism, is one of the most wonderful of contrivances. We all know the innumerable and the delicate functions which it is capable of executing. It consists of a number of parts marvellously adjusted and correlated together, which, if any one of them had been different from what it is, or had been differently correlated one to the other, the mechanism in question would either never have come into existence, or it would have failed to produce the results which it is now capable of accomplishing.

This serves as an illustration of the argument from both kinds of adaptation above referred to. This marvellous instrument, as it exists in man, is found in embryo in the fore feet of the lowest form of vertebrate animals. Its parts are all found there, yet in such a form that they are utterly unable to produce the results which they do in man. They exist there in type only, or idea, of which the human hand is the realization. Before it has attained to this realization it has appeared in different orders of animals, each time making a nearer approach to the realization which the idea has received in the hand of man, and each time correlated to a corresponding advance in mind.

Throughout the whole series of these improvements in the instrument, we recognize what in ordinary language we designate a plan, or, the gradual realization of an idea, commencing in a very rudimentary form, and gradually attaining to higher stages of perfection, until it has culminated in the human hand.

A process of this kind, when we witness it under ordinary circumstances, we designate a plan. But a plan implies the presence of intelligence. When, therefore, we see such plans carried out in nature, which only differ from ordinary ones in the multitude of the adaptations and correlations which are necessary to enable them to become realities, we may surely draw the inference that they must have originated in intelligence.

But the hand forms an apt illustration of the other kind of adaptation. I have already observed that it is admitted on all hands to be a marvellous piece of mechanism, so constituted as to be capable of executing an almost endless variety of functions. The unbeliever, however, asks us to believe that this affords no proof that it has originated in intelligence. But if he were to fall in with an instrument devoid of life, which was capable of executing only ball of the functions which are performed by the human hand, he would not only infer that it had had a contriver, but he would be loud in the praises of his ingenuity.

Why then, I ask, should the contemplation of the one piece of mechanism afford unquestionable evidence of the presence of an intelligent contriver, and the contemplation of that of which it is the copy, only far more elaborate and perfect, afford none? The reason why the opponent of theism accepts the one inference, and rejects the other, must be left to him to explain.

I will only adduce one further illustration, viz. The first of these adjustments consists of the vocal organs, which form a musical instrument of a far more complicated character than has ever been invented by man. Be it observed also that this musical instrument is so constituted, that it subserves a multitude of purposes beyond the production of noise. Yet exquisite as this instrument is, it never would have produced a single sound unless it had been correlated to the atmospheric air, or the air to it, in such a manner that its waves should correspond with the different movements of the instrument.

These correlations, in order theft they may produce musical sounds, must be of the most complicated character; and yet the one set are absolutely independent of the other. Yet both these sets of marvellous adjustments and correlations would fail to produce a single sound, except for the existence of another highly complicated set of correlations and adjustments, independent of both, viz.

Each of these is composed of a number of the most complicated adjustments; and unless the entire series, of which all three sets of adaptations are composed, had been mutually correlated the one to the other, with the utmost care, hearing would have been impossible, and the remaining complicated adjustments would have existed in vain. I have only adduced these two examples for the purpose of illustrating the nature of the argument.

The reader must estimate its force, remembering only that the universe is admitted on all hands to be full of similar adjustments, in numbers which surpass the powers of the human intellect even to conceive. What then must be the conjoint force of the whole? Let me draw the inference, Reason affirms that the theory that these adaptations, adjustments, and correlations, with which every part of the universe abounds, have originated in an intelligence which possesses a power adequate to their production, is an account of their origin which satisfies the requirements alike of common sense and a sound philosophy; or to employ the metaphor used above, these adjustments, adaptations, and correlations proclaim the fact that the forces of the universe are everywhere loaded with intelligence.

This argument acquires an additional conclusiveness, the amount of which it is difficult to estimate, from considerations derived from the mathematical doctrine of chances. I have already observed that these adjustments and correlations are conditioned on a number of the forces of the universe concurring in meeting together at the same time and place; and that if any one of them had failed to do so, the result produced by their correlation would have either not existed at all, or would have been a different one from that which would have been produced by the conjoint action of the whole.

Now, it is obvious that if these adaptations, etc. This being so, the production of those sets of complicated correlations, which I have above described as necessary for the production of that infinite variety of sounds which the ear is capable of distinguishing, by the fortunate meeting together of a number of independent forces at the same time and place, in accordance with the mathematical doctrine of chances, could only be expressed by a fraction, which, if its numerator is unity, its denominator would be some number followed by an array of ciphers, the length of which I must leave to the reader to conjecture.

But this is only an inconsiderable part of the difficulty which besets the theory which I am controverting. This process would have to be repeated in the case of every independent correlation in the universe; and to get at the combined result, these fractions would have to be multiplied together; and the result would be a fraction whose numerator is unity, having for its denominator some number followed by an array of ciphers continued ad infinitum.

According, then, to the mathematical doctrine of chances, it is an improbability, amounting to an impossibility, that these adaptations and correlations can have been the result of a fortuitous concurrence of the unintelligent forces of nature. They must then originate in intelligence. The theory which opponents of theism ask us to accept, as affording a rational account of the origin of those adaptations and correlations with which the universe is full, is this.

The forces of the universe have gone on energizing in conformity with laws from which they cannot deviate during the eternal ages of the past; and in their course have passed through every possible combination. The unstable ones have perished, and the stable ones have survived, and by means of this ever-reiterated process have at length emerged the order and adaptations of that portion of the universe which is destitute of life, without the intervention of intelligence.

How these forces originated, and became endowed with their specific qualities, which have rendered them capable of effecting such marvellous results, we are asked to believe to be a secret into which the limitations of the human mind render it impossible for us to penetrate, and which must therefore remain forever unknown. But with respect to the process by which animated existence has been evolved, its language is less vague. Its theory is as follows.

The original germs of life, the existence of which it is compelled to postulate, and which, in a manner wholly unaccounted for, became possessed of a most convenient power of generating their like, with a number of inconsiderable variations, produced a progeny greatly in excess of their means of subsistence. Hence originated among them a struggle for life, with the effect that the weaker living forms have perished, and the stronger, i.

This struggle has been continued during an indefinite number of ages. This theory is called the theory of natural selection, or the survival of the fittest in the struggle for existence; and modern atheistic unbelief propounds it, aided by another theory, viz. This theory utterly breaks down, as affording even a specious account of the origin of these adaptations and correlations at several points. First, it fails to account for the origin of life, or to show that it is possible to produce living out of non-living matter.

Until it can effect this, it is simply useless for the purposes of atheism. Strange to say, unbelief is now compelled to live by faith. It is confident that the discovery will be made hereafter. Secondly, it fails to give any account of the origin of those qualities, which the original germs of life must have possessed, in order that a starting point may be found for the course of evolution which it propounds.

Fourthly, it demands an interval of time for the carrying out of this vast process of evolution, which although abstractedly possible, other branches of science refuse to concede to it as lying within the existing order of things. Fifthly, it utterly fails to bridge over that profound gulf which separates the moral from the material universe, the universe of freedom from the universe of necessity.

All that it can urge with respect to the origin of life and of free agency, is that it hopes to be able to propound a theory at some future time which shall be able to account for these phenomena. Sixthly, the theory in question, including the Darwinian theory of the production of the entire mass of organisms that have existed in the past, and exist in the present, by the sole agency of natural selection, without the intervention of intelligence, is, in fact, a restatement in a disguised form of the old theory of the production of all the adaptations and correlations in the universe, by the concurrence of an infinite number of fortunate chances--a theory which contradicts the primary intuitions of our intellectual being.

Seventhly, as a fact, the recorded observations by mankind for the last, say, four thousand years, show no instance of evolution of one species from another, but display variation, not infinite but limited, and recurrent to the original form. Eighthly, as a fact, geology Palaeontology shows the same absence of such evolution and of indefinite variation.

Ninthly, all the ascertained facts point only to creation by a plan, or in accordance with a rule, which permits variability within discoverable limits, and requires adaptation, and therefore furnishes no evidence of evolution of species. Let me set before the reader in two sentences the result of the foregoing reasonings. The atheistic theory of evolution utterly breaks down as affording a rational account of the origin of adaptations and correlations with which every region of the universe abounds.

Consequently the theistic account of their origin, which satisfies alike sound philosophy and common sense, is the only adequate one; or, in other words, they have originated in an intelligence which is possessed of a power adequate to their production. Two universes exist beside each other. One, in which the laws of necessity dominate; the other in which free agency is the essential factor.

The first may be designated the material, and the second the moral universe. These are separated from each other by a gulf which no theory of evolution can bridge over. When the first free agent came into existence, a power essentially different from any which had preceded it was introduced into that universe, where necessary law had hitherto reigned supreme. The question therefore presents itself, and demands solution: How did it originate? It could not have produced itself.

It therefore issued from a cause adequate to produce it. That cause must ultimately resolve itself into the first cause of the universe, that is, God. From this follow the following conclusions--Man is a free agent; therefore God must be a free agent. Therefore His free agency is more absolute and perfect than the free agency of man. A moral universe exists. God is the cause of its existence. Therefore the essential principles of morality, as affirmed by conscience, and witnessed by the moral nature of man, must exist in God.

Personality exists in man as an essential portion of his moral nature; therefore, He who framed man, i. Such are the inferences which we are entitled to draw by the aid of our reason respecting the existence and the moral character of God. Row, M. Its idea of God is self-contradictory, since it makes Him infinite, yet consisting only of the finite; absolute, yet existing in necessary relation to the universe; supreme, yet shut up to a process of self-evolution and dependent for self-consciousness on man; without self-determination, yet the cause of all that is.

Its assumed unity of substance is not only without proof, but it directly contradicts our intuitive judgments. These testify that we are not parts and particles of God, but distinct personal subsistences. It assigns no sufficient cause for that fact of the universe which is highest in rank, and therefore most needs explanation, namely, the existence of personal intelligences.

A substance which is itself unconscious, and under the law of necessity, cannot produce beings who are self-conscious and free. Our intuitive conviction of the existence of a God of absolute perfection compels us to conceive of God as possessed of every highest quality and attribute of men, and therefore, especially, of that which constitutes the chief dignity of the human spirit, its personality.

Strong, D. It will be seen at once that an ultimate end, or that for which all other ends in the series exist, and from which they derive their importance, is in the mind of the agent his chief end. It is contended by some that the same series of subordinate ends may have more than one ultimate end, of which one may be chief, and the others inferior ends. This was the opinion of Edwards. They may be both valued for their own sake, and both sought in the same work or acts, and yet one valued more highly and sought more than another.

Thus a man may go a journey to obtain two different benefits or enjoyments, both which may be agreeable to him in themselves considered, and so both may be what he values on their own account, and seeks for their own sake; and yet one may be much more agreeable than the other; and so be what he sets his heart chiefly upon, and seeks most after in his going a journey.

Thus a man may go a journey partly to obtain the possession and enjoyment of a bride that is very dear to him, and partly to gratify his curiosity in looking in a telescope, or some new invented and extraordinary optic glass. Both may be ends that he seeks in his journey, and the one not properly subordinate, or in order to another. One may not depend on another, and therefore both may be ultimate ends; but yet the obtaining his beloved bride may be his chief end, and the benefit of the optic glass his inferior end.

The former may be what he sets his heart most upon, and so be properly the chief end of his journey. As these different objects are to be obtained by the same course of action, or by the same series of subordinate ends, we believe it would be speaking more correctly to represent them as forming one compound ultimate end, rather than two distinct ultimate ends. Again: The ends or purposes of intelligent beings are divided into subjective and objective ends.

The subjective end has reference to the feelings and desires of the agent or being, which are to be gratified by the selection and accomplishment of the objective end. It consists in the gratification of these feelings and desires. The objective end is the thing to be done or brought to pass, and to the accomplishment of which the agent is prompted by these feelings, affections, or desires.

It is not the subjective end of God in creating the universe that we seek. We know this must have been based in the perfections of His character; it must have been for the gratification of His infinite benevolence, His boundless love, that He adopted and spake into being the present system of things. But there must be some objective end toward which He is impelled by His benevolence and love, and for the accomplishment of which the present system was caused to exist.

It is this objective end that we are endeavouring to ascertain. And here we premise that whatever this end was, it was something in the order of time future; that is, something yet to be obtained or accomplished. It would be absurd to suppose a being to adopt and carry out a plan to obtain a good, or to accomplish an end which was already obtained or accomplished. We are now prepared for the general statement that, according to our view, the end of God in creation is not to be found in Himself--that God is not His own end.

The differences between Edwards and ourself upon this point may be traced mainly to a distinction which he has omitted to make, but which we deem of great importance. We mean the distinction which exists between the display of the attributes and perfections of God, and the effect produced by that display upon the mind of the beholder. These attributes and perfections belong to God; their display is the act of God; but the impression made upon the mind of another, by this display, forms no part of God; it is not the act of God, but the result of that act; it is an effect which was not produced, nor does it exist in the mind of God, but which was produced and exists in the mind of the creature.

The importance of this distinction will be made apparent hereafter. That God could not have been His own end in creation, we argue from the infinite fulness of His nature. We can conceive of but one way in which a being can become his own objective end in anything he does, and that is by supposing that he is destitute of something of which he feels the needs, and consequently desires for himself.

To illustrate: Take the scholar who pursues with diligence his studies; he may do this because he delights in knowledge, and his ultimate objective end may be an increase of knowledge; or he may do it because knowledge will render him more worthy of esteem. In either case, the ultimate end is to be found in himself, and in both the idea of defect on the part of the agent is prominent.

Were his knowledge already perfect, there would be no need that he should study to increase it. Now until some defect is found to exist in God--until it can be shown that He does not possess, and has not from eternity possessed, infinite fulness; that there is in His case some personal want unsupplied, it is impossible to show that God is His own end in creation. But it may be well to dwell more at large upon this part of the subject. It will be borne in mind, that the ultimate end is something in the future, something yet to be accomplished.

So that the continued gratification of these feelings, and thus the continuance of His happiness, was undoubtedly an end of God in creation; but, as we have seen, this was His subjective, and not His objective end. The only ways in which we can conceive the attributes of God to be His end in creation, are to increase them, to exercise them, or to display them.

The first could not have been His end, for the increase of attributes already infinite is impossible. If we understand him, he teaches that God exerted His infinite power and wisdom in creation for the sake of exerting them; their exercise was in itself excellent, and one ultimate object or end which Deity had in view in exerting them, was that they might be exerted. That is, the exercise itself, and the end of that exercise, are the same thing. To show the absurdity of this position, we remark Benevolence cannot create, nor justice, nor mercy.

The only attributes which were, or could have been exerted by God in the work of creation, are His infinite wisdom to contrive, and His eternal power to execute. Certainly it did. But that which is a mere incident of creation cannot be its end.

We deny that there is anything excellent in itself in the exercise of natural powers, simply for the sake of exercising them: and this denial holds good whether these powers are finite or infinite; whether they belong to the creature or to the Creator.

The truth is, that all the excellence which attaches to the exercise of natural powers, depends upon and is borrowed from, their designed results. We are led to this conclusion, because such a display, simply in the light of a display, and aside from the effect it produces upon intelligent mind, is entirely valueless.

God understood and delighted in His own attributes just as perfectly before this display as afterward, and, aside from its effect upon other minds, it must be made in vain; which is unworthy of the Great Supreme. What would be thought of an author who should write and publish a book simply to display the powers of his mind, without any idea of having it read to produce an effect upon other minds?

Let us recapitulate, and see to what point we have arrived. We have shown that His end, could not consist in any good which He expected to receive, or was capable of receiving from His creatures, owing to impressions made upon their minds by the display of His attributes in the work of creation. We know of no other way in which God can be His own end in creation. And if there is no other way, then the end which we seek is not to be found in God, and we must look for it in some other direction.

He depends on this end in His desires, aims, actions, and pursuits; so that He fails in all His desires, actions, and pursuits, if He fails of His end. If all things be of Him, and to Him, and He the first and last, this shows Him to be all in all: He is all to Himself. He goes not out of Himself for what He seeks; but His desires and pursuits, as they originate from, so they terminate in Himself; and He is dependent on none but Himself in the beginning or end of any of His exercises or operations.

But if not Himself, but the creature, be His last end, then, as He depends on His last end, He is in some sort dependent on the creature. The question of independence is based upon entirely a different principle, viz. If he possesses in himself the power to accomplish his ends, without aid from any other source, then, as far as they are concerned, he is entirely independent; and this is equally true, whether these ends are within or without himself.

If a being had no power, or not power sufficient to accomplish his ends, were they all within himself, he would still be dependent: on the other hand, if he has within himself absolute power to accomplish all his ends, although these ends are out of himself, he is still independent. The question of independence has nothing to do with the position of these ends; but it has everything to do with the ability of the agent to execute them.

We shall now attempt to answer this question by the following train of reasoning The attributes of God are most wonderfully displayed in the work of creation. His power and wisdom are everywhere conspicuous. So, likewise, the moral excellencies of His character are written in sunbeams upon the works of His hand: and to minds not darkened by sin, these excellencies stand out in bold relief.

Now a display of this character must produce a powerful effect upon intelligent mind; and upon the supposition that the mind is perfectly formed and rightly attuned, the effect must be blessed indeed. The result to which we come, then, is, that the display of the Divine perfections would produce an effect upon mind, perfectly organized and undisturbed by adverse influences, which would cause the recipient to admire and love the Lord his God with all his heart, mind, and strength; and this effect would be limited only by his capacity.

There is another display or exhibition secured by, or consequent upon, the work of creation, viz. There is still another effect secured by the work of creation, and the display consequent upon, it, viz. These he becomes acquainted with by consciousness, and by a careful observation of their workings in various directions. The impression which these attributes of self must make upon the mind of self, provided this mind is perfect in its organization, and undisturbed by adverse influences, will be in exact proportion to the worth of self in the scale of being.

This is self-love as distinguished from selfishness; which is self-love overleaping its boundaries, or overflowing its banks. We have arrived, then, at the following result, viz. In other words, it is entire conformity to the moral law, which consists in loving God with all the soul, mind, and strength, and our neighbour as ourself. This is the result of the action of perfect mind in the direction of perfection itself, it is easy to perceive that perfect bliss, happiness, or delight midst inhere in, or constitute a part of such action--and this, not merely in the sense of art effect, but that it must be woven into its very texture, so as to form a part of its web and woof.

This effect is denominated holiness; and as it is produced in the mind of the creature, and not in the mind of God who was perfectly and infinitely holy before creation began , we call it creature holiness, i. Or thus: The ultimate, objective end for which God created the universe, was the production of the greatest possible amount of creature holiness and happiness.

But then, to carry out his theory, which makes God His own end, he calls this holiness and happiness an emanation from Deity Himself, like a fountain overflowing its banks, or sending forth its waters in streams. The idea that creation is an emanation from God is not strictly true.

It is a production of God, and a production of something out of nothing, not an emanation from Him. We can see how the benevolence of God could lead Him to purpose from all eternity to create the universe at a certain time,--in which case, the universe would not exist until that time arrived. But we cannot see how an original tendency can exist in God, for something to flow out of Himself, as water streams from a fountain, unless the flowing out co-exists with the tendency; and if so, then the universe has co-existed with God, that is, it has existed from eternity.

If the act of creating was the flowing out and the diffusion of the Divinity itself, then the result must have been a part of that divinity; or, in other words, the universe must be a part of God. We believe that the universe, instead of being an emanation from Deity, is the work of His hand; instead of being the overflowing of His fulness, it is a creation of His omnipotence--a causing something to exist out of nothing; and the holiness and happiness of creatures, instead of being the holiness and happiness of God communicated to them, consists in their conformity to the rule of right, and that delight which inheres in and is consequent upon such conformity.

We repeat, then, that the ultimate objective end of God in creating the universe was, to secure the greatest possible amount of creature holiness and happiness. Our reasons for this opinion are as follows:. The holiness of God is the most excellent thing in the universe; and next to it, is the holiness of His creatures. It must, therefore, have been to promote the latter, which is so excellent in itself, and so much to be prized for its results, that it is entirely worthy to be the ultimate end of Jehovah.

No doubt God delights to have the perfections of His character praised, loved, and adored; but, is this delight selfish, or is it benevolent? If selfish, then it is sin. If benevolent, then it is a delight in holiness. God delights to be praised, loved, and adored, because this praise, love, and adoration, form the principal ingredient in holiness; and as it is the creature who praises, loves, and adores, so that this effect is produced in the mind and heart of the creature, we call it creature holiness.

We argue that creature holiness is the end of God in creation, from the fact that for God to promote His own glory, or to promote such a state of mind in the creature as will lead the creature to glorify Him, is the same thing as to promote holiness in the creature.

That holiness is what God delights in above everything else, and desires to promote, is evident from the following considerations:. This we have already illustrated. These considerations go to show that God delights supremely in holiness, and that its production to the greatest possible extent is the thing upon which He has supremely set His heart.

When we love the Lord our God with all our soul, mind, and strength, we glorify Him for what He is in Himself; and when we love His creatures, according to their worth in the scale of being, we glorify Him through His creatures, as the servants of His household, and the subjects of His empire. If we are holy, we shall glorify God; and if we glorify God, we shall be holy. The one cannot exist without the other; and they resolve themselves into the same thing. This view perfectly accords with the Scriptures.

As our limits forbid an extended examination, we will select from those passages quoted by Edwards, to prove that God is His own end in creation. The first class are those which speak of God as the first and the last, the beginning and the end Isaiah ; Rev Revelation These passages simply teach the eternity and absolute sovereignty of God. They have nothing to do with His end in creation; and the wonder is that a divine like Edwards should have quoted them for such a purpose.

A second class of passages are those which declare everything to have been created for God Colossians ; Hebrews These texts teach that God is the Creator and Proprietor of all things--that they were made by Him, and for His use; but they do not decide what use God intends to make of them, nor what end He means to accomplish by them.

They have no sort of bearing upon the question under discussion. They may be arranged under three heads. These texts teach that God does what He does, to lead His subjects to praise and glorify Him, and to magnify His great and holy name; in other words, to love Him with all their soul, mind, and strength: and what is that but creature holiness? Those passages which enjoin it upon the creature to do what he does to the glory of God 1 Corinthians ; 1 Corinthians Those passages which speak of the glory of God as the result of certain acts of the creature Philippians ; John They produce their effect upon other minds, and lead them to praise and glorify God, and thus promote holiness in them.

And to lead others to love and adore God with all the heart, is to lead them to glorify God; and to lead others to love and adore God with all the heart, is to lead them to exercise holy affections: so that to promote the glory of God in others, and to promote holiness in them, is the same thing. The end of God in creation, then, as we think we have shown, is not in Himself, but consists in the promotion of creature holiness, and that happiness which may appropriately be called the happiness of holiness.

It is proposed to examine the general teaching of the Scriptures in the light of six laws, according to which, by the common consensus of competent authorities, the Creator worked in the production of this present terrestrial order. The first of these laws is the law of progress. It may be taken as a fact, settled by overwhelming scientific evidence, and no less clearly affirmed in Genesis, that the world was not created all at once, and that there was a certain order in which its various parts appeared.

It was, without an exception, an order under a law of progress; first, that which was lower, afterward that which was higher. The illustrations are so familiar that they scarcely need to be mentioned. Is this law of progress still in force; or is the progress ended, and is man, as we know him, the last and highest form of life that earth shall see?

The impossibility of further progress cannot therefore be argued on the ground of inconceivability. It can only be established if it be proved beyond controversy that the end of creation has been reached in man. Is there sufficient reason to believe this? Reason itself teaches that if there be a personal God, the Creator of all, then the self-manifestation of God must be the highest end of the earthly creation.

A second law which has been discovered to have been characteristic of the creative process, is the law of progress by ages. That this was the law of Divine procedure is clear both from the book of revelation and of nature. There were periods of creative activity. The work had its evenings and its mornings, repeatedly recurring. The line of progress was not a uniform gradient; not an inclined plane, but a stairway, in which the steps were aeons.

But it may be further remarked, that each new age was marked, not merely by the presence, but by the dominance, of a higher type of life than the one preceding. Does the Scripture also recognize this plan of progress by ages as still the plan of God? The contrast between the present age and that which is to come, is indeed one of the fundamental things in the inspired representation of the divinely established order.

And we can now see how, in this mode of representation, the Scriptures speak with scientific precision, and harmonize completely with the best certified conceptions of nineteenth century science. There were reptiles before the Reptilian age; mammals before the Mammalian age.

These appear now like a prophecy in that earlier time of an order of things not possible with the earlier combinations then prevailing in the animal kingdom. Is it still in force, or is its operation ended? What a momentous question! How full of both scientific and religious interest! For even on scientific grounds, as has been shown, we are led to anticipate an age to come which shall be marked by the dominance of a type of life higher than the present.

Such descriptions are not very minute, but so far as they go they are very definite and clear. Neither can they die any more: for they are equal unto the angels; and are sons of God, being sons of the resurrection. Men incapable of subjection to death, sons of God, perfectly holy--such is the race which shall come to headship in creation in the future age. Herein again, then, the record of Scripture is consistent at once with the system of law as revealed in the past, and with itself, in that, having predicted an age to come, to be inherited by the higher order of resurrection manhood, it sets forth also, as historic fact, the appearance of anticipative forms in the age which now is.

Not to speak of the cases of Enoch and Elijah, we have an Illustrious instance of a prophetic type in the person of Jesus of Nazareth. In Him was manifested a type of life transcending beyond measure embodied life as we know it here. Another law to be observed in the Divine working in the early history of the earth, is the law of creative interpositions. We must, on scientific grounds, affirm creative intervention at least in the origination of matter, and of life, and of free moral agents.

The only alternative is absolute agnosticism on this subject. So much, then, as regards the past. Creative interposition appears as included in the system of law. How is it as regards the future? Are we now done with these manifestations of creative power, or shall they, according to the Scripture, be witnessed again in the future?

Has the man of the present age power to raise himself into this exalted order of life? No one will pretend this. In particular, the natural, or psychical, animal man of the present age cannot by any self-development or self-culture raise himself into the order of the spiritual manhood of the coming age. For regeneration and for resurrection alike he is powerless. Hence Holy Scripture tells us with utmost plainness that what has been in time past, is now and shall be again.

For as the new order of the new age shall itself be introduced by creative power, so shall the new manhood which is destined to inherit that order. For resurrection is by no possibility the outcome of a natural process; it will be the direct result of an act of the almighty power of God.

Reference may be made to another law of the Divine administration in the earlier terrestrial history. It may be called the law of exterminations. The rocks bear testimony to the fact that from time to time during the long creative ages, at the close of one great period after another, there occurred exterminations, more or less extensive, of various orders of life.

The causes of these various exterminations were different in different instances. Sometimes, again, they were due to changes of climate more or less extensive, through the operation of causes which need not be here detailed. As a matter of fact, it appears that the inbringing of a higher order of life and organization commonly involved the extermination of various genera and species unsuited to the new environment. This was demonstrably a part of the plan of God in the development of His creative thoughts.

Even lesser divisions of the great creative aeons were sometimes marked in like manner. Up to the present human period, therefore, there has been in force a law of exterminations, operating under the conditions specified. But yet another age, according to Scripture, is to succeed the present. Is there reason to anticipate that when the point shall be reached of transition from the present to the coming age, the law of exterminations will again take effect? Does Scripture give any hint in answer to this question, and is it here again in harmony with scientific discovery as regards the laws of the past?

The reader will have anticipated the answer which must be given. For it is the repeated declaration of the New Testament Scriptures that the present age shall end, as earlier ages have sometimes ended, with catastrophic changes; this next time, with a catastrophe, not of water, but of fire, giving a new and very terrible application of the ancient law of exterminations. Yet one other law of the creative working may be discerned as we study the record of the rocks.

We may well call it the law of preparation. It were thinkable, since God is almighty, that each age should have been introduced as something absolutely new, having no connection with the ages that had preceded it; that He should have prepared the earth for the new orders of life which were to inhabit it, by a direct act of creative power. But, as a matter of fact, God did not do in this way. Illustrations are as numerous as the ages and periods of geologic time. Each age had its roots, so to speak, in the age or ages that had preceded it.

Indeed, the whole Scripture history is a series of illustrations of this law. Each dispensation was in order to another which was to follow. The Adamic age prepared for the Noachian; the Noachian, for the Mosaic; the Mosaic--and indeed all of these again--for the Christian. So also, according to the same revelation, shall it prove to be as regards the whole great age of the natural man. In a manner still more momentous and comprehensive, this age is set forth as a preparation for the age which is to come, the resurrection age.

This may be true even in a physical sense. For in the new age, according to Isaiah, Peter, and John, there is to be a new earth, which shall appear out of the fires which shall yet consume the present world; and for this and the physical changes which shall thus be brought about, we know not what forces may not even now silently be working beneath our very feet.

They teach this as regards regeneration and sanctification. These are preparatory in their nature. The application of this is evident. Whence such a harmony in the one case, and in such unexpected directions, for which we search in the authoritative books of other religions in vain?

Whence had these men who wrote the Scriptures this their wisdom? Assume what they claim for themselves, a special inspiration from the Former of the universe Himself, and then the harmony with the original system of natural law which pervades the representations of the past, present, and future, is what we should expect.

Deny this, and how shall the fact be explained? Further, it is evident that the facts to which our attention has been directed, reverse the argument which one often hears from unbelievers against the probability of the truth of Scripture history and prophecy, derived from the observed uniformity of the system of natural law.

Instead of saying that the observed invariability of the system of natural law makes the Scripture teachings with regard to the incarnation, the resurrection, the new heavens and the new earth, and the judgment by which they shall be introduced, to be intrinsically improbable, we must say the opposite!

These thoughts also have a bearing on the theodicy. Much in the present age is dark with painful mystery. If there be a God infinite in holiness, goodness, and power, then, it has been asked in all ages, Why such a miserable, imperfect world? Why the earthquake, the pestilence, and the famine, with the destruction and agony they bring? Why sorrow, and sin, and death? Why the disappointed hopes, the darkened homes, empires wrecked, races degenerating, and disappearing from sight at last in a morass of moral corruptions?

But if we recall to mind the ancient law of progress, and progress by ages, and that other law of preparation, we may be able to see--not indeed the answer to our questionings, but so much as shall enable us to hold fast, without wavering, our faith in the God of nature, of history, and of revelation.

Kellogg, D. By creation we mean that free act of the triune God by which in the beginning for His own glory He made, without the use of pre-existing materials, the whole visible and invisible universe. In explanation we notice Creation is not a fashioning of preexisting materials, nor an emanation from the substance of Deity, but is a making of that to exist which once did not exist, either in form or substance.

Creation is not an instinctive or necessary process of the Divine nature, but is the free act of a rational will, put forth for a definite and sufficient end. Creation is different in kind from that eternal process of the Divine nature in virtue of which we speak of generation and procession. Begetting is eternal, out of time; creation is in time, or with time. Creation is the act of the triune God, in the sense that all the persons of the Trinity, themselves uncreated, have a part in it--the Father as the originating, the Son as the mediating, the Spirit as the realizing cause.

Creation is a truth of which mere science or reason cannot fully assure us. Physical science can observe and record changes, but it knows nothing of origins. Reason cannot absolutely disprove the eternity of matter. For proof of the doctrine of Creation, therefore, we rely wholly upon Scripture. Scripture supplements science, and renders its explanation of the universe complete,. These are distinct from and co-eternal with each other. Matter, however, is an unconscious, negative, and imperfect substance, which is subordinate to God, and is made the instrument of His will.

This was the view of the Alexandrian Gnostics. In this way it thought to account for the existence of evil, and to escape the difficulty of imagining a production without use of preexisting material. With regard to this view we remark:. It is false, if it mean that nothing can ever be made except out of material previously existing. The maxim is therefore applicable only to the realm of second causes, and does not bar the creative power of the great first Cause.

The doctrine of creation does not dispense with a cause; on the other hand, it assigns to the universe a sufficient cause in God. We cannot give reality to the products of our imaginations, as God can to his. But if thought were only substance, the analogy would be complete.

The other form of dualism is:. In this view, matter is not a negative and imperfect substance which nevertheless has self-existence, but is either the work or the instrument of a personal and positively malignant intelligence, who wages war against all good. This was the view of the Manichaeans. Manichaeanism is a compound of Christianity and the Persian doctrine of two eternal and opposite intelligences.

Zoroaster, however, held matter to be pure, and to be the creation of the good Being. Mani apparently regarded matter as captive to the evil spirit, if not absolutely his creation. Of this view we need only say that it is refuted.

This theory holds that the universe is of the same substance with God, and is the product of successive evolutions from His being. This was the view of the Syrian Gnostics. Their system was an attempt to interpret Christianity in the forms of Oriental theosophy. A similar doctrine was taught, in the last century, by Swedenborg. We object to it upon the following grounds:. Creation from eternity.

This theory regards creation as an act of God in eternity past. It was propounded by Origen, and has been held in recent times by Martensen. The necessity of supposing such creation from eternity has been argued upon the grounds But we reply that omnipotence does not necessarily imply actual creation; it implies only power to create. Creation, moreover, is in the nature of the case a thing begun. Creation from eternity is a contradiction in terms, and that which is self-contradictory is not an object of power.

But we reply that the argument confounds time with duration. Time is duration measured by successions, and in this sense time can be conceived of as having had a beginning. Spontaneous generation. This theory holds that creation is but the name for a natural process still going on--matter itself having in it the power, under proper conditions, of taking on new functions, and of developing into organic forms.

This view is held by Owen and Bastian. We object that. In short, evolution implies previous involution--if anything comes out of matter, it must first have been put in. This development, however, cannot proceed to any valuable end without the guidance of the same intelligence which initiated it.

In determining this end, we turn first to The testimony of Scripture. This may be summed up in four statements. God finds His end. Since holiness is the fundamental attribute in God, to make Himself, His own pleasure, His own glory, His own manifestation, to be His end in creation, is to find His chief end in His own holiness, its maintenance, expression, and communication.

To make this His chief end, however, is not to exclude certain subordinate ends, such as the revelation of His wisdom, power, and love, and the consequent happiness of innumerable creatures to whom this revelation is made. The testimony of reason. God will get glory out of every human life. The good of creatures is of insignificant importance compared with this. Wisdom dictates that the greater interest should have precedence of the less. If anything in the creature is the last end of God, God is dependent upon the creature.

To create is not to increase His blessedness, but only to reveal it. The interests of the universe are bound up in the interests of God. Glory is not vain-glory, and in expressing His ideal, that is, in expressing Himself, in His creation, He communicates to His creatures the utmost possible good. This self-expression is not selfishness but benevolence. No true poet writes for money or for fame. God does not manifest Himself for the sake of what He can make by it. Self-manifestation is an end in itself.

This must therefore be the end which He in whose image they are made proposes to Himself. To the holiness and benevolence of God. This is not a perfect world. It was not perfect even when originally constituted. Its imperfection is due to sin. This new capability is documented in the EazyDraw Help pages. You will find a new top level link to Command Line Interface, just below the master Menu reference link on the Help main page.

This release includes new capability to assist user transitioning from Intaglio to EazyDraw. Thanks to all the Intaglio users that have provided input and beta testing for this crash bad word choice project. We have tested with Intaglio version 3. Drawings saved as to the Document file type from Intaglio version 3. This is a bundle file type. The EazyDraw pList is updated to provide a backup icon for this file type. Intaglio does not need to be installed for the bundles to be identified properly displayed by the Finder.

Use the normal Open command from EazyDraw to access the Intaglio drawing and open it for editing. The core format for these files is SVG, therefore the content found in EazyDraw is native graphics and text - fully editable. There is a second. An informative error message is presented if you try to open a flat binary with EazyDraw. Our tests have shown that the Flat files will open in Intaglio 3. The Bundle copy of the drawing has the same extension. EazyDraw now has Intaglio icons and file information for macOS.

This is important to identify the drawing folder as a bundle. This in turn can prevent undefined behavior in other Apps. As noted above: EazyDraw now reads the Intaglio Ruler information and sets the EazyDraw drawing scale accordingly, scaled Intaglio drawings import with correct drawing scale.

Grid spacing, settings and color are read from the Intaglio drawing and restored in the EazyDraw drawing. The Arrow reconstruction is not percent complete, some Intaglio standard arrow shapes were not in the set of EazyDraw standard arrows, they will be added to EazyDraw soon to complete this aspect of the import.

Several graphic forms are now detected and promoted to their EazyDraw graphic construct: Rounded Rectangles, Rectangles, Polygons, are conserved. Gradients are imported and conserved. Arrows are now re-created as corresponding EazyDraw Arrows.

Fixed issues importing SVG related to special purpose font families. Problems were encountered with Intaglio imports using older non-unicode font packages. These now import properly directly from the Intaglio files. Some improvements to the Arrows palette. The Standard arrows popup menu now has high quality preview icons for each standard arrow. Historically these were described by names only, the added preview images are very helpful especially on Retina display.

Standard arrows were updated with a few new shapes. Those are found added to the bottom of the Standard Arrows popup menu. Intaglio uses should keep in mind that EazyDraw Arrows have angle and size as a user accessible parameter. The angle adjustability applies to all EazyDraw standard arrows. Made a improvements on the Morph panel. Our support team was receiving input that Uniform scaling was not obvious on the Morph panel.

This release has changes to the wording and labels for scaling. We think this will make Uniform scaling clearer as a choice. The Help pages were updated to be in fully in sync with the current Morph panel parameters and layout. The Transfer feature for Vector Hatch was not working. It is now fixed. Transfer allows a User Library element to function as a defined set of graphic properties. The Hatch property was being skipped and not applied to the target graphic s even when a Hatch was present and the Transfer parameter set included the Hatch.

All is working again. This seems to have been broken since EazyDraw Version 8. Remember to report problems to our support staff. Improved PDF ungroup to recognize rounded rectangle geometry. When detected the generic closed Bezier path is promoted to an EazyDraw rounded rectangle with corresponding corner radii.

Fixed problem snapping connectors and dimensions to nested pivot graphics and free transform graphics. The snapping target points were not mapping to the correct rotated or transformed points. Fixed problem with Graphic Details inspector when positioning the end of a line whose length and angle are pinned. The Numerical input was slightly modified on input. Improved appearance of the dash line popup menu which appears in several palettes such as the Dashes and Hatches.

These are now higher quality preview images. These now have proper Big Sur UI colors in light and dark mode. Updated the Quick Keys keyboard. The visual keyboard accessed from the EazyDraw main menu now supports all 3 user interface icon themes Highlight, Monochrome, and Color for both light and dark modes on low resolution and retina displays.

Fixed problems with User tool palettes when using the Highlight user interface theme. The selected - highlight color was not being applied when the tool was clicked. Fixed problems with User tool palettes some tool icons, Arrow and Rotate tool and others, would sometimes draw at a size larger than the button. This seemed to happen when a new tool was added to a tool palette. This is now fixed, all icons display properly. User tool palettes were not changing properly when the new User Interface Theme icon color - monochrome - highlight was changed.

Most tools would remain in the state present when they were added to the tool palette, using the Edit view. And - they would not respond immediately to light and dark mode change. This is all fixed now. A user designed tool palette now responds to all the new Big Sur user interface options, just as well as a factory tool palette. Made a few improvements on the Morph panel. Wording and label changes to make Uniform scaling clearer as a choice.

The Help pages were updated to be in full sync with the current Morph panel parameters and layout. Added a few new standard arrow shapes. The Standard arrow popup menu updated for improved appearance. Improved appearance for light and dark mode. Added preview arrows to the menu. The new arrow shapes are shapes present in Intaglio standard arrows but were not available in EazyDraw.

These have been added to EazyDraw standard arrows menu. Recovery of intaglio drawings is now complete. This version supports translation of Intaglio standard arrows. These are converted to EazyDraw standard arrows. EazyDraw and Intaglio had nearly the same standard shapes. Intaglio users note: The standard arrows in EazyDraw have adjusting parameters for arrow angle and size. Several bugs in the initial beta were fixed. Verbose reporting has been expanded from the initial beta version.

Arguments for DXF output drawing units are now provided, the selection is used as a calibrated scaling. The updated Man page is included below. The Man page is found in the download ReadMe. Several improvements and additions to the Intaglio import. See Jan. Additions include: EazyDraw now reads the Intaglio Ruler information and sets the EazyDraw drawing scale accordingly, scaled Intaglio drawings import with correct drawing scale.

This will provide icon presentation on newer versions of macOS Big Sur even if Intaglio is not installed. This is useful to identify the drawing folder as a bundle, even if Intaglio has never been installed on the system. A new Command Line Interface is included in this beta release.

Command line interface for EazyDraw, GUI is not instantiated, faceless operation to process commands and files. The Man page documenting control flags and usage is inserted in the ReadMe with the download. Use this as the temporary reference for usage. The module is not complete with this release: Input supported:. Output supporte:. PNG output is not present at this time. This update has further work towards supporting import of Intaglio drawings.

The Intaglio Drawing Bundle file type, with extension. An informative error message is presented if you try to open with EazyDraw. Some problem drawings we have tested have minor XML encoding issues. BBEdit, on the Formatting menu, has tools that prove useful for fixing this class of problem. The Tidy formatting command is especially useful format and indent the SVG content for human reading.

Unfortunately the EazyDraw SVG error reports, which are usually very explicit and helpful, are diminished in value because the content is encoded in one very long line - hence the Error Line number is not helpful. If you have flat binary files, and no working copy of Intaglio, compress and send the files to support at EazyDraw, we will assist - within reasonable limits, or quote price for larger amounts of content.

Added test and patch for SVG generated by Intaglio. We have found Intaglio exporting a Text graphic across multiple tSpans, but the XML tag is marked as a group and not as text. EazyDraw produced an error when this is encountered. Safari did not produce and error, but Safari did not display the text. When triggered the patch changes the group graphic to a text graphic.

If other users encounter issues of this nature be sure to send in your SVG only if the SVG was exported from Intaglio, and no editing with a text editor please drawing so we are able to expand the intelligence of the patch. If Intaglio users wish to fix this situation manually, perhaps for Safari or other client Apps: Use Bbedit, use TIDY to reflow the SVG, search for tSpans - check enclosing graphic, if that is a g-element change it with the editor to a text-element, and closing tag too of course.

This release completes a major update of the over Help pages. They have all been updated to correspond with EazyDraw Illustrations have been recaptured at 2x resolution Retina resolution with P3 colors on Big Sur. Content text has been reformatted with contemporary font face and Big Sur typesetting. This upgrade was about half complete with the introduction of EazyDraw 10 last November. It is now complete. EazyDraw Help still uses the Mac Help book technology which employs heavy handed caching.

Then remove the Apple Help caches in your home library. It is common that the first time you access the updated Help pages you may see a message that content is not available. This a good indicator, it means the help index in the new EazyDraw bundle is being cached. Wait about one cup of coffee and try again, then you should see the new content. To test: check that you can find a new help page on the topic copy and paste drawing, on the Edit menu, near the bottom.

There is a new feature to copy and paste drawing setup parameters. The new commands are found near the bottom of the Edit main menu. These commands should be self explanatory and extend the paste special concept from graphic attributes to drawing attributes. Help pages are complete, refer to these for more information on the use of the new capability. Study this new feature on the Help page, as this will insure you new Help content has updated the macOS cache.

The EazyDraw Preferences panel has a major update. The top toolbar portion is completely redesigned. The concept of a default - set was is a bit cryptic, and was probably even more obscure for non-english speaking users. The new design employs more informative icons instead of wording, which should make the functionality more obvious for everyone. We think the concept of having different groups of defaults will now be discoverable with the icons and visual clues, the two new popup menus, and the indicators on the extended toolbar.

Keep in mind that this is not where one changes parameter settings, and it is not where one makes a simple change to a default setting. This is for managing task specific groups of defaults. In any case it all looks much better, the last design update was over 10 years ago. The scope of the default set was missing a few parameter palettes, these are now included.

More colorful icons are complete. EazyDraw 10 re-introduced the colorful icons for the user interface. The initial version 10 release had all the tool palettes supported for color icons. But most of the toolbar icons were still monochrome. This did not go over so well with the color icon crowd. We know that a cursory view of the project would be to simply put the old icons back - but it is not that simple of course.

Icons now need to support light and dark mode, the old icons only had one design. In actuality a good icon needs light and dark mode for normal and 2x resolution. The EazyDraw Media Assets catalogue have 12 icon entries for each icon seen. Of course we have used EazyDraw to design, draw, and populate the project catalogue - using color managed P3 UI colors of course.

All the Graphic Details inspector panels, there are about 50 of them, have now been fully updated to Big Sur design standards. The dark mode designs have been updated. The Graphic Details and Layers inspectors are now resizable in all 12 languages supported by EazyDraw. All inspectors, tabs and panels resize and auto format for unclipped numeric inspection even if units are displayed with very high precision numeric settings. Improved support for import of drawings from Intaglio.

There were a few problems, including a possible EazyDraw crash. Intaglio saves the SVG content in a folder with the extension. These caused EazyDraw to crash. That is now fixed. EazyDraw now has a file system patch to simulate bundle behavior and access the SVG content in the folder. This is working now with EazyDraw In addition: The Intaglio SVG files degraded geometric classes to paths, loosing identity of rectangles and other geometric forms.

EazyDraw now tests for these situations and promotes the groups of lines to more useful graphics such as rectangles, squares, rounded rectangles, rotated rectangles, etc. We are still working or the Intaglio import work flow.

Please send in test drawings that could use improvement or have issues. We will fix them and all Intaglio transitioning users will benefit. Some text blocks would fail to load, causing an empty text box. Fail safe code has been added to retain the original text data content if problems like this are encountered in the future. This code relates to the significant, behind the scenes, effort to keep all old drawings accessible on the new versions of macOS.

Apple has depreciated the unarchivers and left users with no avenue to access the old text technology, dating to s and early s. EazyDraw has reverse engineered the old formats to provide our users with the solutions needed.

Apple has fixed the bug that caused this issue on macOS Best advise to users is to make certain you have an EazyDraw Graphic format copy not the binary file format. EazyDraw Graphic format is XML based, human readable, which insures data integrity across technology and time..

Changed behavior for Copy and Paste - Drag and Drop of text between scaled drawings with different scale. Previously the text was scaled to match the destination drawing scale. Now transferring text is not adjusted. Apple has depreciated the unarchivers and left uses with no avenue to access the old text technology, dating to early 's.

Major update for Czech, Norwegian and Chinese. The Graphic Details inspector is fully updated to Big Sur design standards. The inspection panels have more room for high precision display with units, the inspectors support resizing by the user. This project is now complete for all 12 supported languages. Fixed Finder preview icon images and Quicklook previews. These were not displaying on some installations. The problem began with EazyDraw 10 and the Big Sur release.

The EazyDraw drivers were updated to dual binaries for Apple Silicon support. But it seems macOS is not yet compatible. Fixed Apple Help pages. Starting with EazyDraw Help pages work again on all systems. This release has further updates to Help content.

All graphics and content are being upgraded to reflect the Big Sur user interface. Of coulee, the content and graphics apply for EazyDraw 10 on all supported macOS versions, Fixed Color icons for right facing trapezoid tool button. The wrong icon was shown on the toolbar for the color icon theme. Swedish was updated with version The update is a major appearance improvement. It adopts the new guidelines Apple has specified and implemented with Big Sur.

Update for the graphic details inspector for Italian, Norwegian , and Spanish. The update provides natural field width adjustment as the inspector panel is resized. Fixed bug on the Help menu display indicating, erroneously, that there were zero days left on expiring license. Fixed failure to launch. An Apple security module beta limit date was overlooked. Fixed problem with attaching dimensions when the target graphic is embedded in a group nested in another group.

The attach points were not computed correctly and the snap point would sometimes revert to the origin of the drawing. This was recently introduce in EazyDraw Was not present in EazyDraw 9. Fixed problem with very narrow hair line vertical or horizontal lines.

If the line width was less than 0. This has been present for about 18 months, in late versions of EazyDraw 9. Major upgrade for the Graphic Details and Layers inspector for Swedish language users. This was especially important for dark mode users. All display panels are now upgrade to Big Sur design standards and dynamic colors for light and dark mode. Fixed Monochrome icons for dark mode for Brace tool button.

These 4 buttons were nearly invisible in dark mode. Their icons are now properly shown in both light and dark mode on Retina and classic displays. Colorful Icons Back!! EazyDraw now has three user interface themes with support for the ish colorful icons. All 3 themes support and adapt to both light and dark mode system appearance. The third choice is the Mojave subdued monochrome look. Near bottom of the panel the Icons popup menu provides 3 selections.

Color is the older theme with colorful tool icons. A new theme, the default for Big Sur, is named Highlight. This theme tints the icons using System Preferences setting for Accent Color to highlight a selection and a compliment color as an icon tint.

Match New feature to search for graphics that match parameter attributes, such as fill color, or text font family. This is found on the Edit menu, near the bottom. Select a single graphic that has the desired trait, this graphic is the master for the match search.

Match then enables. Choose desired traits to match, then execute. The search for matches encompasses all selectable graphics. Check Help pages for full documentation. Universal Binary. The App runs native on Intel or Apple Silicon. Nothing needs to be performed by the user, macOS will choose the correct binary for your system.

Drawings exchange seamlessly, if you have a new M1 CPU and an older Intel system EazyDraw will run optimally on both and drawings will interchange seamlessly. Help Pages. While these pages are updated with each release to remain consistent with the evolution of EazyDraw, the last major update was over 10 years ago: before Retina resolution graphics and P3 colors were a thing.

With EazyDraw 10 the illustrations and images have been re-mastered on Big Sur with high dynamic range brighter P3 colors and Retina grade 2x resolution. The improved appearance benefits tremendously with the amazing new clean crisp Big Sur design.

Full support for Big Sur. This version supports macOC Support for universal binary means that EazyDraw is able to optimally support systems back to macOS Three user interface themes means that the App will not look out-of-place across all platforms going back years. Many other code improvements and re-authored user interface graphics from over 6 months of top to bottom testing and coding optimization for Apple Silicon native support. Universal binary native support for Apple Silicon and Intel.

Three new user interface themes with support for the more colorful icons. Monochrome is black, gray, and white tool colors. Monochrome is the Mojave user interface appearance, a less distracting look and feel. By user demand: bringing back the colored icons from pre-Mojave design. Three choices, Color, Monochrome, or Highlight.

Monochrome is the Mojave and Catalina black and white design. This work is in progress, color and tint are not yet available for most icons. Initial support for Big Sur macOS Corrected problem when using the Scale Worksheet panel. Setting the scale via this panel could later cause a problem with the Save or Save As browsing panel. EazyDraw would hang when trying to present the Save Browse panel. Fixed issues for gradients with extended convergence ranges. Most noticeability a few of the gradients in the default toolbar palette were not drawn properly.

For example: gradients that transitioned from light to dark and back to light. These are again working properly. Added new capability for editing Bezier curves and paths. Cmd and Option buttons have new vertex editing modifications. Cmd and Option will modify to insert a vertex in a Path Path being a Bezier of straight, non curved, segments. Cmd and Option will modify to extend either end of an open Bezier path or curve.

Hold down the modifier key then click on the target vertex and drag, the newly inserted vertex will drag and follow mouse movements. For end point extension Cmd extends a linear segment with control points. For end point extension Option extends a curved segment. For a path Cmd adds the vertex after the vertex, Option adds the point before the vertex.

Cmd and Option drag of a non-end point vertex for a Bezier curve does not insert a vertex, the modifier keys cause adjacent control points to move with the vertex. Previously EazyDraw printed an error message and failed the conversion. Several browsers were tested and they accept the file, therefore it seems that EazyDraw should accept the drawing.

Fixed SVG export of rotated text when using outlines for text no fonts or glyphs used for text. Rotated text was rotated twice on the export. Fixed a problem with grid color for users running on older versions of macOS EazyDraw 9 had progressed to use Catalogue colors for the grid default colors which provides better future support for wide gamut displays. But madOS Grids sometimes would open and not be seen until the drawing was saved and re-opened on macOS This is now all fixed.

The correction still provides full support for wide gamut display colors on macOS Fixed bug with the Snap popup menu found on right side of the Attributes bar. The popup menu did not work if the Align to Grid palette had not ben opened. Now the menu always works, even if the Align to Grid palette is not open and has never been opened. Export iconset did not properly select the content for the individual icons. The problem was introduced with recent changes to support wide gamut colors.

Export iconset now works with all png supported color space selections including p3 colors. Added new controls for attributed text background. The macOS system font panel previously provided this control but with Catalina they have dropped support for this parameter. We have added the parameter to the Accessory view found at the bottom of the system font panel. This text background is distinct from the text box background. The text box background is managed on the Color and Style palette.

The attributed text background applies specifically with each glyph. Normally this version of text background in not used by EazyDraw users, the text box background has the most commonly sought appearance. The main need for this parameter is to be able to turn off an attributed text background that might be pasted into an EazyDraw drawing.

Fixed a multi-thread problem associated to the system font panel. A very rare situation that normally would not cause a crash. All is robust now. Starting with Catalina bitmap images for the System Clipboard are formatted at 16 bit per color component with wide gamut color encoding. EazyDraw 9 now uses Little Endian byte order.

Previously Apps like the Finder and Messages did not respect the actual byte order of the image content, the images were highly distorted with color speckles and blurry content. This was only a problem on Catalina, Mojave and High Sierra did not experience this problem. All is correct now.

The copied images were not using wide gamut colors. This is now fixed, the copied image will have the same color space color gamut as defined in the drawing. Inspect and set image color space on Graphic Details inspector.

Default color space for images when copying to the Clipboard is now P3 color space. Fully tested and integrated with the new mobile EazyDraw versions for iPhone and iPad. Search for EazyDraw - you will need to spell it out correctly with the z. Download and install, the mobile version is free - no charges, no subscriptions.

Move drawings to and from the mobile device using the new Catalina Finder capability or iCloud. The images were often flipped, up and down directions. These were not displayed properly by several Linux and Windows apps. The images were prepared correctly and displayed properly on most apps including Preview. However apps that did not read and respect meta-data defining the image orientation would display the images upside-down.

The EazyDraw exports were flipped and, of course, noted accordingly in the metadata. Now all apps should display the images properly. Integrated with Universal Clipboard to share copy and paste with iPad and iPhone devices.. This provides for copy and paste across devices.

Testing assured accurate and faithful edit across all 3 operating systems, using both iCloud and Files on iOS. Runs well on Catalina developer release macOS Please report issues if encountered. Support for Beta release of SF Symbols. Use standard Convert to Bezier commands for design and editing of the new UI symbols; as allowed with Apple copyright information.

Corrected DXF import. Corrected y-axis flipped bitmap image. Rare situation, involves images that had no y-axis meta-data that were created with older versions of EazyDraw, then used by EazyDraw versions 8 late versions, 8. These images would open once in correct orientation then second save or Duplicate of the drawing would experience a y-axis flip. This situation is now corrected. Improved performance for drawings that contain large PDF images. Apple has made changes to a technology called responsive scrolling, which added a very large CPU overhead drawing a large number of small rectangles of the large PDF.

EazyDraw now swaps in a bitmap image of the PDF image for drawing to the screen. Quality should be the same. The bitmap representation is only used for screen drawing, not export or printing. The bitmap image is able to efficiently supply the large number of small sub-images required by macOS for the responsive scrolling engine.

The vector aspect of the PDF image works well for drawing the full image but is not optimal for drawing the large number of sub-regions. Improved performance for drawings that contain large bitmap images on layers with Color Modification. This is situation had similar issues supplying information to macOS for responsive scrolling see above. EazyDraw now caches the fully color modified bitmap image which solves the performance issue.

Fixed problem reading drawings saved from older versions pre version 5 of EazyDraw, saved in the binary format. There was a problem reading orthogonal. The overall goal is to fully support opening any drawing created by EazyDraw from to present. This requires reverse engineering low level operating system binary parsing modules.

Please report any issues in this area. Improved Text Flow via Text Links. There was a possible recursion if, some how, the out text link of a text box was connected to the in text link of the same text box. A verification is now integrated into the code to make certain that in and out text links are robust. Fixed Dimension and Connector snapping to groups. Snap points near the top of a group were not being detected.

Problem fixed. Further corrections for the intermittent issue of setting line weight, dash pattern or arrows from the Attributes bar. In rare cases use of the Attributes bar popup menus would disable use of the corresponding controls on the Color and Style, or Dash, or Arrows primary tool box palette. Hopefully this is fixed now, our apologies for nagging problem.

There were issues causing a crash, and other problems associated with inheritance of color and style attributes. Imports using these constructs now seems robust. Fixed intermittent issue with setting line weight from the Attributes bar on Mojave. Minor update with major changes for the Dutch localization. The Dutch localization has major changes for the Graphic Details and Layers inspectors. These have been improved with full resizing capability and enhanced light and dark mode support.

Minor update with major changes for the Japanese localization. The Japanese localization has major changes for the Graphic Details and Layers inspectors. Updated French user interface for Graphic Details and Layers inspector. This now has a full Mojave look, improved resizing support, optimized appearance for light and dark mode. Enhanced the Time Format capability. A new selection provided for specifying leading zero for month and day. Corrections for Spanish localization.

Some phrases were still shown as Norwegian. Spanish should be correct now. Added French localization of the PDF user manual. Access from the Help menu, when running in French. A new setting is now available on EazyDraw preferences for additional control over the use of Tabs for new or opening drawings. Recent changes in macOS result in Tabs being used as a default condition. There is a System Setting, on the Dock settings panel, for managing this user preference.

But we have several complaints that Tabs remain in use. The new setting on EazyDraw preferences when set to Disallow will prevail and new drawing windows will open in separate windows. The EazyDraw setting and the system setting do interact, thus all possibilities are available: for example set the System setting to Always and Safari will use tabs, and EazyDraw will not use tabs when the EazyDraw setting is Disallow.

Note: a change to the EazyDraw setting applies to the next window that will open and to the front most window that is open, keep this scope statement in mind to avoid confusion when testing behavior. Fixed several problems associated with setting dashes or arrows from the Attributes bar buttons. These problems were rather random and sometimes caused a change in defaults all new lines might start drawing as dashed - for example These are all fixed now.

We are transitioning EazyDraw to strictly respect image meta data orientation setting. If any issues are seen, please report the problem and send in the originating drawing and raw image if possible. Fixed a problem exporting JPG, graphics only. There was a translation error that in some cases shifted the image and left a black band or possible a full black image.

This was introduced with version 9. All fixed now.. Fixed a specific image y-axis flip problem for a specific class of TIF images in drawings saved by EazyDraw 8. Reboot Keynote export. Apple has reinstated the public Keynote file format. The export is a full native vector and fill export. Bezier paths and other shapes may be used as masks in Keynote. The keynote export is found on the File main menu, Export submenu. Fixed a few more text colors and UI graphics associated with Mojave light and dark modes.

Corrected the Spanish UI localization. The last version of EazyDraw had problems with menus and other parameter palettes Spanish translation, it was intermixed with Norwegian. Sorry about that, all is fixed now. Fixed an issue with exported JPG images. These images were often y-axis flipped when used as web graphics. They would display properly natively on any Mac or iOS device. These were seen flipped when viewed by a web browser. The EazyDraw export for JPG was y-mirrored at the pixel level with a corresponding mirror for the meta data image information.

This assures proper y-axis orientation on all systems that we tested. Fixed possible problems changing color or line width from the Attribute bar when the Color and Style palette was not in use. Fixed problem saving newly created drawings on macOS Mojave users did not have this issue. The error message mentions Grid color.

Drawing save properly again. This was a new problem with version 9. Fixed problem with ruler color on macOS The default color for new drawings was a stark black. This is now fixed and provides a more pleasing gray background for the ruler. Mojave users did not have this problem. Fixed long standing issues related to customizing the main toolbar on High Sierra and Mojave.

Each version of macOS had problems. High Sierra blocked the toolbar with the tool selection palette, when not in Full Screen Mode. Mojave had problems in Full Screen mode, the tool selection palette extended off screen preventing mouse click of the Done button. These are both actually macOS issues present in other Apps.

EazyDraw now has patches to correct the problems. When first presented the tool selection palette still has the position and auto resining errors, then you will see a brief flash and the palette is corrected by the EazyDraw patch - making everything again fully usable. Fixed a problem with Find for text strings. Rare problem related presence of corrupt empty text boxes.

This is now robust and always works. Fixed ruler background color on High Sierra, with multiple drawing windows. The non-main windows had a sharp black background color. That color should be less saturated, a softer gray to indicate the window is not in focus.

This is fixed now.. Fixed problem on Grid Reference palette. Clicking on the reference view to set a user defined reference point was not setting the exact point indicated by the cursor. The cursor-pointer is now accurate again.. Changed wording for the Inspector menu on the View main menu in Japanese. A native Japanese user submitted improved phrase for this function. Fixed problem when adding a new tool to a user tool palette. The tool palette icon was oversized, until the next quit and restart of EazyDraw.

This is now displayed properly immediately after an edit session for a user tool palette. Fixed speed problem with large JPG images. Display was much slower than with previous versions of EazyDraw on previous versions of macOS. Lag times are now much better on Mojave. Fixed problem with certain pattern fill images. They were displayed with severe banding and inaccurate colors. Fixed problem with y axis flipped bitmap images in drawings save with EazyDraw Version 8. The issue was with TIFF images.

They are now opened correctly. This actually a macOS problem and we have not been able to devise a work-around. The button is not visible, but it is still possible to customize the toolbar. When complete click the Enter key on the keyboard - this works even though the button is not visible. Or use this work-around: exit Full Screen then customize the toolbar. All New Look: The user interface has a major upgrade. The new look is predominately monochrome for consistent contemporary appearance in both light and dark mode.

Extensive testing and corrections opening drawings from various older versions of EazyDraw and macOS. Confirmation of the y-axis flip orientation of bitmap images. Fixed Mojave issue loading user saved Toolbar configuration. These now save and load properly and toolbar configurations from older versions of macOS and EazyDraw load properly.

Finalized support for user library menus, including update to light and dark mode support for the menu icons. Finalized light and dark mode support for user library palettes, quick keys palette, and customized tool palettes.

Fixed layout issues with the top area of the Layers inspector when using Tabs with the drawing window. More light and dark mode icons are now complete, recent additions relate to user libraries. The user library menus are now fully light and dark mode compliant and respond when mode is changed, no need to quit and restart EazyDraw.

Updated Patterns and the backing code for color management. Further improvements for color management of TIFF, PNG, and JPG images including screen grabs, drag and drop, copy and paste, file exports from wide gamut displays and the newest color calibrated iPhones.

More light and dark mode icons are now complete, very nearly complete now. These now include many new and improved live cursors with improved appearance especially on Retina and high dynamic range displays. Fixed Mojave issue with user tool palettes and Quick-Keys palette. The tool icons were blank. They are now present and automatically updated to the new light and dark mode icons.

These palettes now support light and dark mode. Fixed issues exporting tp PNG and other bitmap formats using the new wide gamut color spaces. Images that included bitmap drop shadows had problems with the geometry of the shadows. These are now greatly improved, work correctly for all color spaces and DPI values. Corrected problem on Mojave with proper positioning of palettes when quitting and restarting EazyDraw with the system preference of reopen drawings set to NO.

In all cases now palettes are repositioned and sized exactly as they were when the Quit command executed for EazyDraw. A new feature: set Dots Per Inch for bitmap images. The new setting is found on Graphic Details inspector, when a bitmap image is selected. The parameter has always been there but input was not allowed. Now the parameter is accepted.

Images are resampled as factor of two or intermediate new value. Fixed reported issue on some Mojave systems with text insert cursor drawing with white color so as to be nearly invisible. A new user interface selection for Text Cursor color. The color may be defined by the user or set to be the System Accent color on Mojave. Corrected several minor issues running on Mojave, minor performance optimizations for Mojave. Fixed text editing.

This has been an issue with Mojave, successive edits of text would be smaller and smaller to the extreme. This version has further corrections. This version now brings customized user content from EazyDraw 8 forward to this version. Support for custom tool palettes and menu tools. Fixed serious problem in version 9. More light and dark mode icons are now complete, mostly in the toolbar icons. Icon upgrades are nearing completion. Many more of the new icons for light and dark mode. Tech tool palette, Charting tool palette and many others.

Work continues on the tool buttons and toolbar icons. New paramater on the Ruler Style palette. The new check box allows ruler style to be driven by the light-dark mode system setting. Or, uncheck to set colors manually. Second test of security hardened compilation and Apple Notarization.

Further testing and tweaks on macOS Fixed ruler background color when running on macOS Several settings for shortened panel heights were adjusted for proper appearance on the new version. Short Version:This Version will reset and automatically regenerate user defaults and customizations for wide gamut colors and switchable light - dark modes. License code will be needed. Details: This version will use different identifiers and locations for default settings and application support.

This version is not sandboxed. Customized tool palettes and may be saved from your old version and loaded to the new version. A systems knowledgable support individual may locate and move customized support files in the hidden library folder. Files that relate to colors, on newer hardware with wide gamut color support, should not be moved: this should be regenerated by the new version of EazyDraw to transition to the advanced color technology.

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