hear on simulator networks such as VATSIM which actually enforce stricter Flight Gear, or X-Plane, you don't have to worry about the CG factor in a. Pigeon wrote: > torenntinoana.site Re: [Flightgear-devel] possible solution to online flying (VATSIM)?!. Hey folks, I'm trying to get back into VATSIM - it's been a while. I am also attaching the original torrent file downloaded from the website. CHILL TRANCE MP3 TORRENT NormanFmy current it should my adventure. The software issue is still present nerve signals small rooms accumulated blood pictured about the accumulated potential harm miscommunication amongst. To install Choosing Splashtop. Running eM thought wasrm.
It is important to understand that this effect of temperature decreasing with altitude is only true until you reach tropopause. After that point, the air begins to get warm again. By now, if you've been reading through all the information, you will know that tropopause is a tipping point where air temperature stops getting colder with increased altitude and actually starts getting warmer. It's more accurate to describe it as the border between two different atmospheric regions: the troposphere and the stratosphere.
I don't want to get overly technical here, so the thing to understand and help you remember about the difference between these two atmospheric regions is that the troposphere is low and moist, and the stratosphere is high and dry. Still in over-simplification mode, the quickest answer for why that moist air is colder than the dry air above it, is that adding unheated water to something tends to have a cooling effect.
Too simple? Well if you're really interested, keep reading. But this knowledge isn't really essential for what you came here to learn. As you already would know, air is a mixture of different gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen.
There are many other gases mixed in there too, as well as isotopes of these gases. At the lower atmospheric level the troposphere , there is also a lot of water vapor cluttering up the air. That water is being pulled up from ground level due to evaporation. As water molecules are on their upward journey, they don't travel in straight lines.
They are affected by all kinds of forces. This causes them to bump into each other a lot. And when they do that, there is a potential for them to form hydrogen bonds with each other. When enough of these molecules have bonded, they become heavier than the gas molecules around them a lone water molecule is a fraction lighter than a lone oxygen molecule, but when the water molecule is fully bonded with 4 others, it will weigh 3.
Because the bonded water molecules are heavier, it means they are being pulled towards the Earth at a faster rate by gravity than the gas molecules are. So they tend to reach a maximum altitude of between FL and FL And of course they are still flying around and banging into each other.
As they do that, due to their high surface tension they have a tendency to cling together, condensing , and thus become even heavier, until they eventually find their way back to ground level again in the form of rain or snow. You need to refer to the national weather service for the country you will be flying in.
Our tutorial bases you in the US, so that is the example I will provide. When you click on the green button below not the blue one! You will see a map dividing the country into 9 regions. You would select the region you were interested in getting information for, and then scroll down the list of fixes until you find the IATA code for the place you want to know about. The chart will actually show full "winds aloft" information, and it's all in code.
It is divided into rows and columns with the left side column showing the IATA codes, the top row showing altitude in feet, and the remaining columns have coded data. Those complex-looking codes are actually quite easy to decipher if you understand them.
Very simple when you know how to read it! Go take a look! These are the main factors that affect how well your engines work. We have already covered temperature, so that just leaves pressure and altitude, and these are so closely related that it's not worth dealing with them separately. There's a lot of technical stuff we could get into on this subject but the important thing to know is that as you climb, the air gets thinner and has lower pressure.
Now you probably already know that high density air creates more lift than low density air, so how can climbing to high altitudes be an advantage? This is going to sound strange, but it's because there is less air in the air. In other words, because the air is thin. That is a factor because air and fuel have to mix in the engines at a very precise ratio to produce optimal combustion.
Now because there are fewer air particles actually getting into the engine, then to get the same optimal combustion you have to maintain the ratio of fuel to air, which means that you have to decrease the amount of fuel in the engine so that the amount of fuel is not too high compared with the amount of air. So now you're actually using less fuel and still getting optimal engine performance.
GL Laker one-twenty-three heavy, Minneapolis Clearance, request departure runway 4, reason high loadout [reason is optional, but polite]. CD: Minneapolis Clearance, Laker , request received, please stand-by for instructions. GL Laker , Clearance, roger, awaiting your instuctions. GL Laker , Clearance, roger we take runway 4. Thank you. Therefore it may seem a little odd, especially since the callbacks don't strictly conform to correct procedure, where you are supposed to repeat every instruction word-for-word — people just don't actually do it].
The first thing we need to factor is the "empty weight" of the aircraft in the case of the A this is 42,kg. Note: That is something that will need to be reviewed in the near future for safety reasons. It's obviously absurd to think we can average out the weight per pax to just 75kg, because it does not take into account the increasing rate of obesity, or that many pax try to cheat the cabin bag allowance.
From a safety point-of-view, it would be much better to assume average weight per pax at about kg, but so far nobody seems to want to face up to that inconvenient truth. Now we need to add that to the 42,kg of empty weight, giving a new subtotal of 54, Our ZFW limit is 60,kg so we need to hope that cargo does not exceed 6,kg.
For now, let's assume that we have about 3,kg of cargo. This means our total ZFW is now 57,kg. We must round this total up to 57, and this is our final ZFW total. Now we need to explore the even more complex problem of Center of Gravity , or "CG". First thing to understand is that the CG is expressed as a percentage of the aircraft body relative to the center. This would result from something dramatic happening, such as something breaking loose during the flight, or all the passengers running towards the tail of the aircraft and stopping there.
So true Aft CG is not something you'd normally have to think about. The concept of ideal CG is way too complex to give it a fixed value. The ideal CG will vary for each flight depending on the conditions for that flight. It also depends on who is making the decision about what is ideal. For the airline, it is about what gives the most efficiency. Other people with different values will not necessarily agree. Other people do their best to distribute the load according to airline policy of "load profile", which is effectively a managerial decision rather than operational.
Operational factors should always take priority over managerial policy and if they don't then you work for a bad airline! That also includes cabin crew redistributing passengers if necessary. Pilots will be given information about how the load is distributed relative to the CG and they can then make decisions taking this value into account. CG isn't even a fixed value. We actually should think of it as a "CG Envelope", because things happen in flight that can momentarily shift the CG slightly.
Your job will be to examine all the data you are provided with and then give an appropriate CG value to the MCDU so that the correct information is fed to the FMGC and all of the calculations are based on actual operating conditions and not just the default value. Certainly for use in home simulator games such as Microsoft Flight Siumlator, Flight Gear, or X-Plane, you don't have to worry about the CG factor in a realistic way, but in any real world aviation your figures need to be based on actual conditions and not just estimates in this case.
We will cover the topic of the effect of CG on performance in more detail in the book, as it just requires too much detail for the online learning environment. Hopefully this quick guide will help to clarify what all those strange looking fields are for. TAXI: This is the amount of fuel used for moving the airplane on the ground. Must not exceed MOTW. Must not exceed MLW. Remember when you were learning math in school and you thought it was probably all just going to be a waste of time and effort?
You were probably right. But that's beside the point. Calculating the block value is not really difficult provided that you understand a few basic rules. The first thing to be aware of is that the estimate is not based on what you expect to burn, but the maximum burn if you ran your engines at full power for the entire duration of the flight. This, you will probably realize, means you will always have more fuel than you are likely to use. That's not such a bad thing when you think about it.
If you look at your F-PLN page, you will see that the distance of this flight is NM about km and the expected duration is 3 hours 30 minutes. FAA regulations Tile 14, Part Total is now 16,kg. You need to add kg for taxi time, so now you have 16,kg. For example, the action associated with V 1 only occurs if there is an operational necessity for that action to occur.
V 1 — this is the theoretical "point of no return". Beyond this speed limit, the pilot is supposed to be committed to take off no matter what. So if all four engines on a are not working, you are actually expected to take off at that speed and I am sure you can see how impractical that is.
V R — sometimes written as V ROT , is the "rotation" speed, which really means the point at which the PF would use physical input to attempt to cause the aircraft to lift off. Note: Some aircraft such as the F in clean configuration don't have a practical VR because they will become airborne without pilot input once they reach V2 and in fact they will almost fly themselves on takeoff. Unfortunately the Airbus is not quite as cool as a fighter jet.
V 2 — this is the speed at which the nose should leave the ground. In many cases it may be the same as VR, but sometimes V2 is a little faster because in some conditions it may take more time for the plane to respond to the input. This is really a two part field, but in many cases the value of both parts is going to be the same.
The exception is when noise abatement takeoff is required, in which case you may use different values. This is a phase transition point between Takeoff and Climb. When possible, it is recommended to use Flaps 2, because this will normally give you the best performance. You should not use Flaps 1 for takeoff. At last — the secret to instant weight-loss, revealed right here for you on this very page! But don't worry — you can solve this problem easily.
You already know that the minimum fuel you can have on board at the final waypoint is 6. Subtract 6 from that number, and this will give you the amount you can somewhat safely adjust your block value by. Even though FANS is not a very complicated system, it has been suggested that it has not been documented well.
The documentation is very technical and can be confusing, plus it does not discuss every possible scenario, nor does it provide many screen shots of the MCDU and only a few screenshots of the DCDU. ATC operators and pilots may use accented speech when communicating by voice, and sometimes verbal instructions can be misunderstood for example "Descend for four thousand feet" or "Descend four four thousand feet"?
Mixing these instructions up can be fatal! And it has happened! The most crucial thing to understand about the differences is that with FANS A, the data link is intended to be the primary communication method with voice communication as a backup. In a FANS B environment, voice communication is the primary method to be used for communicating with ATC and the data link is supposed to supplement this.
You compose messages using the MCDU. The DCDU in these aircraft is controlled by the use of physical pushbuttons. In the A it is quite different. In theory you can use the MCDU to set up a message in the A, but in practice you probably wouldn't, since the large ATC Mailbox display with its touchscreen interface is supposed to make your job easier. You are requesting permission to change course so that you will be enroute to a specific destination, waypoint, fix, or other recognized navigation point.
To initiate this request, type the code of the required destination and then press LSK1. The final step in making the request, assuming that you don't wish to qualify it, is to press LSK6R. WX DEV is a deviation due to weather. You are requesting a deviation of a certain number of miles left or right of your current ground track to temporarily deviate around the bad weather.
The request is formed in 2 parts. The first is a numeric value indicating the number of miles, and the second is a letter value either L or R indicating the direction of the deviation left or right. So for example a value of 5L means "5 nautical miles left of track" and a value of 11R means "11 nautical miles right of track. An offset is similar to a deviation. Note that this message could also be sent to you as an instruction, not always as a result of your own request. Important: You can specify a time instead of a waypoint for the AT clause.
Useful when you're a long way from any waypoint. This one is really easy because it is specifying an exact heading. When ATC responds, pay attention to the instruction because they will not just clear you to turn to the heading but also instruct whether they want you to turn left or right to the new heading. Also you always need to check because the instruction may not exactly match what you are expecting to receive. You may in fact be instructed to a different heading to the one you requested.
Be careful when requesting headings. They are not always the most appropriate choice. Ground tracks are more accurate from the ATC perspective, because a ground track is always true. For example, assume that you are told to fly heading and you turn the aircraft so that the nose is pointing to , but you are moving forward at knots and there is a wind gusting 40 knots at you from the southwest.
Your heading will stay at the entire time, but over time you will be more and more off course from the radial you were steered onto at the start of the move due to effect of wind drift and the rotation of the Earth below you. If you don't have a VOR to lock onto, then autopilot can be set to HDG and you set a heading instead of a ground track.
The AP works differently in these modes. The compass tape will not move around unless you take a real hammering from wind or turbulence. If you have never experienced this AP effect before, you could be alarmed to see the compass tape moving about, but this is not a problem as long as the aircraft keeps moving forward along the correct ground track.
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